Computer Networking

Transport Layer

Computer Networking

Computer networking consists of group of devices which are connected through Transmission Medium for the purpose of sharing resources. 

  • Group of Devices may include Mobiles, Laptops, PC’s and Printers etc.
  • Transmission Medium may include any physical cable or wireless medium for data transmission.
  • Resources may include printers, hard disks, scanners, etc.

The computers in the network may exist at same or different places. Transferring of data electronically from one device to another is known as data communication. 

Basic Pillars Of Data Communication

There are mainly five components of a data communication system in Networking

  1. Sender
  2. Receiver
  3. Message
  4. Transmission Medium
  5. Communication Device
  6. Set of rules (Protocol)

Descriptive diagram of computer networking 

1. Sender

Sender is a  device which sends the message. The sending device may be a computer, Fax machine or mobile phone. Sender is also known as Transmitter or Source.

2. Receiver

Receiver is a device which receive the message. The receiving device may be a computer, Fax machine, mobile phone or printer. Receiver is also known as Sink.

3. Message

The message is a data or some information’s which is to be communicated. A message can be a text, audio, video or mixture of all of these elements.

4. Transmission Medium

It carries the message from sender to receiver.  Transmission medium may be a physical cable or wireless.

5. Communication Device

Both sending and receiving devices must contains a communication device i.e. network interface card (NIC) or modem.

“It is use to transmit message between the sender and receiver through transmission medium”.

6. Protocols

When sender sends the message to receiver then receiver must be able to understand that message. For this purpose protocols are used by both ends (sender and receiver).

“Protocols are standard which tells how, when and what is communicated”. Some common protocols are Ethernet, Token Ring, TCP/IP etc.

Properties of Good communication

  • Delivery: Data must deliver to correct destination
  • Accuracy: Data must deliver accurately because Loss of data is not tolerated.
  • Timeliness: Data must deliver within time because data become useless if it does not deliver in time.

Basic Components of Computer Networking

There are many components of computer networking. Look at the followings

  • NIC (Network interface card).
  • HUB
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Gateway
  • Modem
  • Cable and Connectors etc.

Communication Technologies

There are different communication technologies, Major use of communication technologies are

  • Voice mail
  • Fax
  • Email
  • Instant messaging
  • Chat rooms
  • Newsgroups
  • Internet telephony
  • Video conferencing
  • Collaboration
  • Groupware
  • Global positioning system

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