Introduction to Networking

Computer Networking 

Computer networking consists of a group of devices that are connected through a Transmission Medium for the purpose of sharing resources. 

  • Group of Devices may include Mobiles, Laptops, PCs Printers, etc.
  • Transmission Medium may include any physical cable or wireless medium for data transmission.
  • Resources may include printers, hard disks, scanners, etc.

The computers in the network may exist in the same or different places. Transferring data electronically from one device to another is known as data communication. 

Basic Pillars Of Data Communication

There are five main components of a data communication system in Networking

  1. Sender
  2. Receiver
  3. Message
  4. Transmission Medium
  5. Communication Device
  6. Set of rules (Protocol)

Descriptive diagram of computer networking 

1. Sender

A sender is a  device that sends the message. The sending device may be a computer, Fax machine, or mobile phone. The sender is also known as the Transmitter or Source.

2. Receiver

The receiver is a device that receives the message. The receiving device may be a computer, Fax machine, mobile phone, or printer. The receiver is also known as Sink.

3. Message

The message is data or some information that is to be communicated. A message can be a text, audio, video, or mixture of all of these elements.

4. Transmission Medium

It carries the message from sender to receiver. The transmission medium may be a physical cable or wireless.

5. Communication Device

Both sending and receiving devices must contains a communication device i.e. network interface card (NIC) or modem.

“It is used to transmit a message between the sender and receiver through transmission medium.”

6. Protocols

When a sender sends a message to the receiver, the receiver must be able to understand that message; for this purpose, protocols are used by both ends (sender and receiver).

“Protocols are standard which tells how, when and what is communicated.” Some common protocols are Ethernet, Token Ring, TCP/IP etc.

Properties of Good communication

  • Delivery: Data must be delivered to the correct destination.
  • Accuracy: Data must be delivered accurately because Loss of data is not tolerated.
  • Timeliness: Data must be delivered within time because data becomes useless if it is not delivered in time.

Basic Components of Computer Networking

There are many components of computer networking. Look at the following

  • NIC (Network interface card).
  • HUB
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Gateway
  • Modem
  • Cable and Connectors, etc.

Communication Technologies

There are different communication technologies; major uses of communication technologies are

  • Voice mail
  • Fax
  • Email
  • Instant messaging
  • Chat rooms
  • Newsgroups
  • Internet telephony
  • Video conferencing
  • Collaboration
  • Groupware
  • Global positioning system