What is Operating System?
Operating system (OS) is an interface, through which user can interact with Hardware.
User use the user applications which are executed on hardware through Operating system.User applications are MS Office, Games, Firefox, Vlc, Photoshop etc. Different hardware’s are CPU, I/O devices and Storage devices.Operating system contains Kernel, Utility software, and System software’s.
Working of OS
User use the different applications like web browsers, Media players. These applications are set of instructions which are given to Operating system. Then Operating system execute them on their relevant hardware.
Let suppose, we want to Open MS Office, then OPEN instruction is given to OS. OS execute these instructions on relevant hardware i.e. Monitor. In the same way, when we want to print some pages, then PRINT Instruction is given to OS, and OS print those particular pages on Printer.
Note: Instructions like OPEN, PRINT etc. are System Calls. There are different system calls of system are READ, WRITE, LIST, PRINT, and OPEN etc. to perform different task through hardware’s.
Why we use OS?
It is responsible for determining the features and functions of your device.User can access hardware without OS. But for this, the user have to write each time a program to access the hardware. In this way, complexity of the system is increased. But through Operating system, we have no need to write each time a program to access the hardware’s. Other reason to using operating system is, if one user use a resource then other cannot access the same resource at the same time. But operating system can manage it.
Some Examples of OS
1. Windows: It provides the convenience. Once there was a time, when there was 95 percent usage of windows OS . But in 2019 there is 82% use of windows in market.
Windows can also easily installed on android mobiles. For this connect your android mobile with Laptop/PC through USB cable. Then select Android > Windows (8/8.1/7/XP) to install the windows on an android Cell. You have to select one operating system either window or android at boot time.
2. Linux: A programmer Linus in 1991 create the Linux OS. Nowadays, programmers from all over the world participate on its open source code. It is also known as community developed OS. This OS is mainly works in computers, mobile devices, mainframes, servers and embedded devices.
It provides maximum throughput as compare to windows. But it is not convenient as compare to windows. You can run Linux on any Android smartphone.
3. DOS: DOS Stands for “Disk Operating System.” DOS was the first operating system used by IBM compatible computers.
It is a command line, or text-based interface. For example, we use “CD” command for change directory and “PWD” command for printing the documents.
4. Apple iOS: Apple’s iOS is an Apple iPhone OS. Apple is a company which produces iPhones and their OS. So, Apple iOS runs on Apple hardware’s. it can also run on iPhones, iPad tablets and iPod Touch media players.
5. Apple macOS: The other name of Apple’s macOS is Apple Macintosh OS or MAC. It runs on Apple laptops and desktops.
Functionalities of Operating System
Operating System can manage the following tasks easily.
- Process Management: When we perform multiple tasks like word, Photoshop, or C program. Then OS manage all these tasks through CPU scheduling algorithms.
- Process synchronization: OS also control the Parallel co-operative processes.
- Resource Manager: It is mostly important at server system. When multiple processes are requesting for same source, then OS allocate them resource.
- CPU Scheduling: There are lot of CPU scheduling algorithms available to schedule the process. Discuss later.
- File Management: OS manage all files of computer system. It includes he process of creating, editing, updating, and deleting the files.
- Memory Management: OS Load the processes in RAM and manage the Allocation and de-allocation.
- Storage Management (Hard Disk Management): OS tells us, How to manage the data on Hard disk. As NIFS (common internet file system), CIFS and NFS (Network file system).
- Security: Although OS provide security for data. But it also provides security for all processes, so that they cannot interfere with each other. if one process interferes with other process then that will be blocked.