Computer Organization and Architecture
Before learning the concepts of Computer Organization and Architecture, you must have a basic knowledge of Computer units and its Architecture etc. The syllabus of computer organization and architecture is based on computer hardware and Software’s.
Elements of Computer Organization and Architecture
There are 3 major elements of computer computer organization and architecture. Explained below
1. Computer Hardware’s
Computer hardware’s consist of electronic circuits (i.e. CPU), displays (i.e. Monitors), Magnetic and optical storage (i.e. Hard disk) and communication facilities (i.e. Internet wires, system buses).
2. Computer Organization
Computer organization is main concern with physical design of system. As
- Design of Main Memory: it tells about the capacity of RAM
- Design of Busses: How much data can transfer at a time through busses
- CPU Design: Single or Multicore core CPU’s, Multi-programming or Multitasking CPU.
3. Computer Architecture
It is also known as instruction set architecture. Its main concern with logical calculations i.e. memory organization, registers, instruction sets and exceptional handling (i.e interrupts). Instruction set Architecture is visible to programmer. Two main approaches are used for instruction set architecture
- RISC (Reduced instruction set computer)
- CISC (Complex instruction set computer
Note: Computer-Architecture works under the rule of what to do? and computer organization deals with how to do it?
For example, if a system wants to perform simple addition operation then the need for CPU, memory, ALU is computer architecture and how the addition-operation will perform on the data Is the computer organization.
Evolution of Computing Devices
The first computing system was designed in early 1940 which is known as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), vacuum tubes were used in it.
There are five computer generations are used in computer history from 1940 to date.
- First Generation (1940 to 1956): Vacuum Tubes
- Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Transistors
- Third Generation (1964 to 1971): Integrated Circuits
- Fourth Generation (1972 to 2010): Microprocessors
- Fifth Generation (2010): Artificial Intelligence
Basic functional units of Computers
The main operations of computers are
- Load a program into main memory from secondary memory.
- Fetch, decode and execute the instructions from main memory
- Control the execution by control unit
- Processed data and results display on output unit.