Computer Networking

Transport Layer

TCP/IP Model

TCP/IP model was developed by Department of Defense (DoD) in 1970s and adopted as the protocol standard for ARPANET in 1983.

TCP/IP is a practical model which is used to communicate different devices over internet.

As, this model does not contain proper documentation. So, Mostly books tell that TCP/IP model holds 5 layers and some other books tells that TCP/IP model holds 4-layers. But working of 4-layered or 5-layered TCP/IP model is same.

As we know OSI model holds 7 layers. Layers with Names of TCP/IP is explain in following diagram

Naming of TCP/IP Model

The Name of TCP/IP model is based on 2 protocols of its model. One is TCP protocol which is used at Transport layer and other is IP protocol which is used at Network layer.

TCP/IP Protocol

As we know the OSI and TCP/IP model are same in functionality. So, the protocols, data formats, delivery of data etc. of TCP/IP layers are just same as the protocols of OSI layers.

For example, if protocols of Transport layer in OSI model are TCP and UDP then TCP/IP model also holds these two protocols for its transport layer.

As layer (5, 6, and 7) in OSI model combine to make an application layer in TCP/IP model. So, Application layer of TCP/IP holds all protocols of Layer 5, 6, 7 of OSI model.

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