Computer Networking

Transport Layer

IP Address in Networking

In computer networking IP addressing is used at network layer,

  • IP stand for Internet Protocol.
  • IP address is a unique address which is assigned by ISP to each device whenever it connected to internet.

Types Of IP Address

There are two types of IP address

1. Static IP Address

  • After assigning a Static IP Addresses to host, it always remains the They are configured manually.

Note: Some internet service providers (ISPs) do not provide static IP addresses. Static IP are more costly than dynamic IP Addresses.

2. Dynamic IP Address

  • Dynamic IP Address is a temporarily assigned IP Address to any host of a network. It can be assigned to a different device if it is available (not in use of any Host).
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) or PPPoE (point to point connection over Ethernet) assigns dynamic IP addresses.

IP Address Versions

IP address is classified into two versions

IPv4 is mostly using now a days. However both IPv4 and IPv6 are supported by mostly Operating systems and manufacturer of networking devices.

IPv4 Address Format

  • IPv4 Address is a 32 bit binary address which has 4 octet. Each octet (8-bits) are separated by dot (“.”).
  • it supports 232 or 4.3 billion IP addresses. IPv4 addresses are not enough due to  rapid growth of internet.
  • In IPv4, Some octets are fixed for Net ID and rest of octet are reserve for Host ID.

NET ID: Net ID always contains the some first octets out of 4 octets. Net ID is used to identify the network in which Host/computer exists.

Host ID: Host section always contains the least octet of IP address. It identifies the actual Host/computer in the network.

So, IP address (Network ID and Host ID) represents the location of host in the network.

IPv4 Address Example

Example of an IP Address in Binary = 00000011.10100001.00001011.11110001

Example of an IP Address in Binary Decimal Representation =

IPv6 Address Format

As the IPv4 are running out as with the growing of internet. And IPv6 comes into picture, it use 128-bit address techniques as compared to 32-bit IPv4. IPv6 provides (2128) unique IP addresses.

IPv6 Address Example

It is doted in hexadecimal instead of decimal, as given below

6789.ABCD.1234.EF92. 6789.ABCD.1234.EF92

Each hexadecimal character is denoted by 4 binary bits.  IPv6 may also be unicast, multicast or broadcast.

IP Addressing

IP addressing is classified into two systems which are

In the upcoming lecture we will learn Classful and classless IP addressing.


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