Introduction to Networking

IP Address in Networking

In computer networking, IP addressing is used at the network layer,

  • IP stands for Internet Protocol.
  • IP address is a unique address which is assigned by the ISP to each device whenever it is connected to the internet.

Types Of IP Address

There are two types of IP address

1. Static IP Address

  • After assigning a static IP address to the host, it always remains the same. They are configured manually.

Note: Some internet service providers (ISPs) do not provide static IP addresses. Static IPs are more costly than dynamic IP Addresses.

2. Dynamic IP Address

  • Dynamic IP Address is a temporarily assigned IP Address to any host of a network. It can be assigned to a different device if it is available (not in use of any Host).
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) or PPPoE (point-to-point connection over Ethernet) assigns dynamic IP addresses.

IP Address Versions

The IP address is classified into two versions.

IPv4 is mostly used now-a-days. However, both IPv4 and IPv6 are mostly supported by Operating systems and manufacturers of networking devices.

IPv4 Address Format

  • IPv4 Address is a 32-bit binary address that has 4 octets. Each octet (8 bits) is separated by a dot (“.”).
  • it supports 232 or 4.3 billion IP addresses. IPv4 addresses are not enough due to the rapid growth of the internet.
  • In IPv4, Some octets are fixed for Net ID, and the rest of the octets are reserved for the Host ID.

NET ID: Net ID always contains the first octets out of 4 octets. Net ID is used to identify the network in which the Host/computer exists.

Host ID: The host section always contains the least octet of an IP address. It identifies the actual Host/computer in the network.

So, the IP address (Network ID and Host ID) represents the location of the host in the network.

IPv4 Address Example

Example of an IP Address in Binary = 00000011.10100001.00001011.11110001

Example of an IP Address in Binary Decimal Representation = 3.161.11.241

IPv6 Address Format

The IPv4 is running out, as is the growth of the internet. IPv6 comes into the picture; it uses 128-bit address techniques as compared to 32-bit IPv4. IPv6 provides (2128) unique IP addresses.

IPv6 Address Example

It is doted in hexadecimal instead of decimal, as given below

6789.ABCD.1234.EF92. 6789.ABCD.1234.EF92

Each hexadecimal character is denoted by 4 binary bits.  IPv6 may also be unicast, multicast or broadcast.

IP Addressing

IP addressing is classified into two systems, which are

In the upcoming lecture, we will learn about classful and classless IP addressing.