DBMS Notes

DBMS Architecture

The DBMS design depends upon its architecture. So, DBMS architecture depends upon how users can connect to the database to meet their requirements.

In DBMS architecture there is an interface (API’s like: ODBCJDBC) at client end which is used to access the database. This interface uses the query in any langue (PHP, Jave etc) to select or fetch the record from database.

Types of DBMS Architecture

There are three major types of DBMS Architecture

database architecture types

i. 1-Tier Architecture

  • 1-tier architecture is a simplest architecture where the Client, Server, and Database all reside on the same machine. So, anytime you install a database in your machine and access it through SQL queries. Therefore, This type of architecture is an example of 1-tier architecture.

  • In simple words, in 1-tier architecture, the user can directly sit on the DBMS and uses it.

  • 1-tier architecture is rarely used in production. It is used where the quick response is required. For example, development of the local application

1-tier architecture

II.  2-tier architecture

  • In the two-tier architecture, applications on the client side(i.e. PC, Mobile, Tablet, etc.) can directly communicate with the database (server side).

  • User interfaces (API’s like: ODBCJDBC) and application programs are run on the client-side, because to establish a connection with server

2-tier architecture
  • The database server is responsible for query processing and transaction management.

Example of 2-tier Architecture is a CMS (Contact Management System). CMS can made through MS- Access.

Real Life Example

When any person Go to bank or railway station. And Fill a manual application form for ticket reservation or bank transaction. These forms are given to some operators. Operators are using client’s machines behind the window. Then client’s machines access the database to verify details. So, this is example of 2-tier architecture.


Advantages of 2-Tier architecture 

  • It is easy to use and maintain because it has limited clients.

Disadvantages of 2-Tier architecture 

  • But problem with this architecture is scalability. Scalability means when the number of users increased then two-tier architecture does not work properly.

  • Security is other main problem because It does not allow the role base access. It means author can work as administrator because every client has direct and similar access to database.

  • Traffic load on database server is high because it first processes the query and then provides the required data as well.

III. 3-tier architecture

  • In 3-tier architecture, client cannot directly communicate with the database server. It contains another layer (application layer) between the client and server.

  • The user on the client-end interacts with an application server (also called business layer) which further communicates with the database system.

  • End user has no idea about database and database also has no idea about any end user.

  • The 3-Tier architecture mostly use in web application.

3-tier architecture

Advantages of 3-tier architecture

  • High security because of role base architecture.

  • Highly flexibility (scalability)

Disadvantages of 3-tier architecture

  • Tough to maintain as compare to 2-tier architecture

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